What does verification mean and why is it needed?
In engineering systems, in quality control, in the areas of testing standards and other related areas, it is impossible to do without an inspection report. Authentication is also an act of account verification (identity, persona, user), that is, authentication of identification data. There are many other examples, including areas such as data analysis (verification of the predictive result of a numerical model), falsifiability of scientific research, the audit process, and so on.

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Examples of verification in software.
In the vast majority of cases, data verification is a guarantee of the security and operability of the software when interacting with personal data. The verification procedure creates a barrier for intruders and reduces the risks of automated fraudulent schemes on the Internet when accounts are created with non-existent data in order to harm the operation of the site, service, application. That's what it means to pass verification in various services.
Verification according to GOST.
When purchasing products, it is important for organizations to make sure that they receive the goods that are reflected in the documentation, for which a check is carried out in Russia according to GOST 24297-2013. If something goes wrong, the verification is interrupted, the instance with violations receives a mark of non-compliance and is sent to issue a complaint.
Verification of the card (credit, debit).
When receiving a bank card, you need to confirm the fact that the person specified in the contract intends to use it, for this the card verification system requests additional information. After all, the fraudster already has a plastic number, expiration date, owner's name and CVV2/CVC2 code, but there may not be access to the owner's phone - the check is performed using SMS, Internet banking or a call from the operator. According to a similar scheme, two-factor verification is implemented, when in addition to the main one (password verification or using a fingerprint sensor), another confirmation factor is needed (for example, SMS from a linked phone or a code from a mobile application).
Verification of wallets on the Internet.
Payment systems and online wallets are also forced to additionally protect themselves from fraudulent schemes, where there is no way to do without a client authentication procedure. Qiwi, WebMoney, Yandex resort to verification by means of various certificates, clarifications, printed passwords, "selfies" with a passport in their hands and other methods.Money", PayPal and others.
Site verification.
Site verification with verification of user access to administrator rights is another common type of use of various services, for example, Yandex.Webmaster. To register, you need to convince the search engine that you really are the true owner of the site, for which you need to use a special code in a special tag in the HTML code of the main page, or upload an HTML file to the root directory via FTP or using the CMS interface. Also, you are probably familiar with anti-spam verification on CAPTCHA sites with the verification of a person visiting a page or an automated bot.